Thursday, August 31, 2017

Wonder of Coconut and Coconut oil

English: Longitudinal section of Cocos nucifer...
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word.The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull", from the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.

Coconuts are known for their great versatility, as evidenced by many traditional uses, ranging from food to cosmetics.They form a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their large quantity of water (also called "juice") and when immature, they are known as tender-nuts or jelly-nuts and may be harvested for their potable coconut water. When mature, they can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from the kernel, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. The endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, becoming the edible coconut "flesh".When dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking and frying, as well as in soaps and cosmetics. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. The coconut also has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals.

English: Coconut oil in solid state.
Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). It has various applications. Because of its high saturated fat content, it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to six months at 24 °C (75 °F) without spoiling.

The approximate concentration of fatty acids in coconut oil (midpoint of range in source)
While the world is only catching on to this now, the benefits of coconut oil is hardly a new phenomenon. It’s been extracted from the meat of coconuts for thousands of years, and actively used by people in tropical climates. The myth that coconut oil causes heart disease was originally linked to its high percentage of saturated fat. Since the 1950s, saturated fat has been demonized due to the misleading “Lipid Hypothesis” by a man named Ancel Keys., This myth was perpetuated during the low-fat era of the 1980s and 1990s. Thankfully, new research busts these myths.

While many of the specific health claims associated with coconut oil haven’t been fully proven yet, there are enough tried-and-true solutions — for your body and otherwise — that you’ll proclaim it a miracle fix regardless.

Coconut oil contains the medium chain fatty acids (MCFA), which the body digests differently as compared to other fats. It is gentler to the digestive system and is digested more efficiently than the other forms of long chain fatty acids. The MCFA demands fewer enzymes to facilitate its digestion. As a result, the body does not need to activate the fat digesting enzymes in the body that could burden the digestive system, as well as the pancreas during the process.

According to medical research, coconut oil benefits the body in the following ways:

1.Proven Alzheimer’s Disease Natural Treatment
  • The digestion of MCFAs by the liver creates ketones that are readily accessible by the brain for energy. Ketones supply energy to the brain without the need of insulin to process glucose into energy.
  • Recent research has shown that the brain actually creates its own insulin to process glucose and power brain cells. As the brain of an Alzheimer’s patient loses the ability to create its own insulin, the ketones from coconut oil could create an alternate source of energy to help repair brain function. 
2. Prevents Heart Disease and High Blood Pressure
  • Coconut oil is high in natural saturated fats. Saturated fats not only increase the healthy cholesterol (known as HDL cholesterol) in your body, but also help convert the LDL “bad” cholesterol into good cholesterols.
  • By Increasing the HDL in the body, it helps promote heart health and lower the risk of heart disease.
  • Coconut oil also benefits the heart by lowering high triglycerides.
3. Treats UTI and Kidney Infection and Protects the Liver
  • Coconut oil has been known to clear up and heal urinary tract infection (UTI) and kidney infections. The MCFAs in the oil work as a natural antibiotic by disrupting the lipid coating on bacteria and killing them. Research also shows that coconut oil directly protects the liver from damage. 
  • Coconut water also helps hydrate and support the healing process. Doctors have even injected coconut water to clear up kidney stones. Coconut is a powerful superfood, which is evident given all these tremendous coconut oil benefits
4. Reduces Inflammation and Arthritis
  • In a study in India, the high levels of antioxidants present in virgin coconut oil (VCO) reduced inflammation and treated arthritis more effectively than leading medications.
  • In another recent study, coconut oil that was harvested with only medium heat was found to suppress inflammatory cells. It worked as both an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.
5. Cancer Prevention and Treatment
  • Coconut oil has two qualities that help it fight cancer: one, because of the ketones produced in its digestion. Tumor cells are not able to access the energy in ketones and are glucose-dependent. It’s believed that a ketogenic diet could be a possible component of helping cancer patients recover.
  • Two, as the MCFAs digest the lipid walls of bacteria, they also can kill the helicobacter pylori bacteria that has been known to increase the risk of stomach cancer. Even in studies where cancer is chemically induced, the introduction of coconut oil prevents cancer from developing.
        6. Immune System Boost (Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antiviral)
        • Coconut oil contains lauric acid (monolaurin), which is known to reduce candida, fight bacteria and create a hostile environment for viruses. Many diseases today are caused by the overgrowth of bad bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites in the body.
        • You can replace grains and sugar in your diet with coconut oil as your natural fuel source when you’re sick. Sugar feeds the growth of bad bacteria. Instead, take one tablespoon of coconut oil three times daily when sick, and consume plenty of vegetables and bone broth as well.
        7. Improves Memory and Brain Function
        • In a 2004 study published in the Journal of Neurobiology of Aging, researchers found that the MCFAs in coconut oil improved the memory problems in their older subjects.
        • Across all the patients there was a marked improvement in their recall ability after taking this fatty acid. As the MCFAs are absorbed easily in the body and can be accessed in the brain without the use of insulin. Thus, they are able to fuel brain cells more efficiently. 
        8. Improves Energy and Endurance
          • Coconut oil is easy to digest and also produces a longer sustained energy and increases your metabolism. When taking a quality unrefined coconut oil, you can get the most coconut oil benefits as its MCFAs are sent directly to the liver to be converted into energy.
          • Today, many triathletes use coconut oil as their source of fuel during training and races for long-distance events. You can make a homemade energy fuel by mixing coconut oil, raw honey and chia seeds together. Simply put together one tablespoon of each and consume 30 minutes prior to exercise.
              9. Improves Digestion and Reduces Stomach Ulcers and Ulcerative Colitis
                • Coconut also improves digestion as it helps the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, calcium and magnesium.
                • If coconut oil is taken at the same time as omega-3 fatty acids, it can make them twice as effective, as they are readily available to be digested and used by the body.
                • Coconut oil can help improve bacteria and gut health by destroying bad bacteria and candida. Candida imbalance especially can decrease stomach acid, which causes inflammation and poor digestion. All this together means coconut oil benefits digestive health and helps treat or prevent stomach ulcers and ulcerative colitis.
                        10. Reduces Symptoms of Gallbladder Disease and Pancreatitis
                          • The MCFAs of coconut oil do not need the pancreatic enzymes to be broken down, so taking coconut oil eases the strain on the pancreas.
                          • Additionally, this superfood is so easy to digest that it has been known to improve the symptoms of gallbladder disease as well. Replace other long-chain fats with coconut oil to improve gallbladder and total body health.
                              11. Improves Skin Issues (Burns, Eczema, Dandruff, Dermatitis and Psoriasis)
                              • Coconut oil is wonderful as a face cleanser, moisturizer and sun screen, but also it can treat many skin disorders. The fatty acids (caprylic and lauric) in coconut oil reduce inflammation internally and externally and moisturize, making them a great solution for all types of skin conditions.
                              • It protects the skin and has many antioxidants that make it ideal for healing the skin. In addition, the antimicrobial properties balance out the candida or fungal sources that can cause many skin conditions. There’s so much unrefined coconut oil can do for skin.
                                  12. Prevents Gum Disease and Tooth Decay
                                  • Oil pulling with coconut oil has been used for centuries as a way to cleanse the mouth of bacteria and help heal periodontal disease. Coconut oil is one of the most effective oils for oil pulling due to its high concentration of antibacterial MCFAs.
                                  • By swishing the oil in your mouth, the oil denatures the bacteria and sticks to it. Removing oral bacteria greatly reduces your risk of periodontal disease. If you want to heal your gums and repair your teeth, I recommend coconut oil pulling three times a week for 20 minutes a day. 
                                    13. Prevents Osteoporosis
                                    • Oxidative stress and free radicals are the two biggest culprits of osteoporosis. Since coconut oil has such high levels of antioxidants, which help fight free radicals, it is a leading natural treatment for osteoporosis.
                                    • Another of the amazing coconut oil benefits is that it increases calcium absorption in the gut. Research on osteoporosis has found that coconut oil not only increases bone volume and structure in subjects, but also decreased bone loss due to osteoporosis.
                                      14. Improves Type II Diabetes
                                      • When cells refuse to respond to insulin and no longer take in glucose for energy, then they’re considered insulin-resistant. The pancreas then pumps out more insulin to compensate and creates an overproduction cycle. Insulin resistance is the precursor to type II diabetes.
                                      • The MCFAs in coconut oil help balance the insulin reactions in the cells and promote healthy digestive process. They take off the strain on the pancreas and give the body a consistent energy source that is not dependent on glucose reactions, which can prevent insulin resistance and type II diabetes.
                                        15. Coconut Oil for Weight loss
                                        • Because of the energy-creating abilities of coconut oil and the fact it’s a no-carb oil, it is no wonder that it is beneficial in losing weight. It helps burn fat and calories, decrease appetite, and in studies it was especially helpful in losing belly fat.
                                        • Coconut’s ability to help you shed fat has been well-established. A 1985 study published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health proved that a single injection of capric acid resulted in “initially rapid, then gradual decrease in food consumption and a parallel loss of body weight” in male rats.
                                        • It might seem counterintuitive to assume that eating coconut oil (a fat) will contribute to fat loss, but it is actually quite logical. The key to understanding this phenomenon lays in the multidimensional ability of the MCFAs to control a variety of physiological processes.
                                        • For example, in the 1985 study mentioned above, it was discovered that capric acid shows significant improvements in thyroid function, helps lower resting heart rate and assists your body in burning fat for energy.
                                        • More recently, the Obesity Research Journal published a study from Boston University Medical School that gives us a clue why MCFAs have fat-burning ability. 
                                        • Testing the effects that MFCAs have on fat breakdown, adipose (fatty) cells in rats were pretreated with caprylic acid. They observed that fat breakdown occurred at such a significant level that it literally mimicked the characteristics of fasting.
                                        • Fasting, in this sense, is not to be regarded as negative, but positive in that the body uses its energy reserves most effectively and speeds up the breakdown of needless fat reserves.
                                        • In the words of the researchers who conducted this study, “Such changes could contribute, in part, to weight loss in animals and humans associated with dietary medium-chain fatty acids.”
                                          16. Building Muscle and Losing Body Fat
                                          • MCFAs aren’t just good for burning fat; they are also great for building muscle. The MCFAs found in coconut are also used in popular muscle-building products like Muscle Milk™.
                                          • The vast majority of heavily produced supplements, however, use processed forms of MCFAs. By eating actual coconuts instead, you get the “real deal.” I recommend adding three tablespoons of coconut oil to a muscle-building shake daily.
                                            17. Coconut Oil Benefits for Hair Care
                                            • If you have dandruff or dry hair, coconut oil has the perfect fatty acids to help improve these conditions. In fact, there is so much coconut oil can do for hair. You can make homemade coconut lavender shampoo to improve your hair and use straight coconut oil as an all-natural hair conditioner.
                                            • To get rid of dandruff and thicken hair, massage one tablespoon of coconut oil mixed with 10 drops of rosemary essential oil into your scalp for three minutes. Then shower 30 minutes later.
                                              18. Candida and Yeast Infections
                                              • A study published in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy found the capric acid and lauric acid in coconut oil made for an effective natural treatment for candida albicans and yeast infections.
                                              • To effectively kill candida and treat yeast infections, remove processed sugar and refined grains from your diet and consume plenty of healthy fats. Take one tablespoon of coconut oil three times daily as a supplement. 
                                                19. Coconut Oil for Anti-Aging
                                                • According to research published in the medical journal Food and Function, coconut oil improves antioxidant levels and can slow aging. Coconut oil works by reducing stress on the liver and lowering oxidative stress. 
                                                • Also, researchers found that coconut oil may support detoxification because of how it works with the liver. To naturally slow aging, take one tablespoon of coconut oil with antioxidant-rich berries for breakfast. You can also apply it directly to skin for additional benefits and smoothing.
                                                  20. Coconut Oil for Hormone Balance
                                                  • Using coconut oil benefits your hormones as well! Coconut oil may help naturally balance hormones because it’s a great source of saturated fat, including lauric acid. Studies have found that coconut oil may be an excellent fat to consume during menopause and also may have positives effects on estrogen levels.
                                                  • In order to naturally balance hormones, reduce sugar and grain consumption and load up on healthy fats from coconut, avocado, flax seeds and ghee. You can also consume other coconut forms, such as coconut butter or coconut water.

                                                  Wednesday, December 7, 2016

                                                  Juggling Five Balls Of Life

                                                  English: Picture taken of me juggling.
                                                  The 5 balls of life speech by Coca-Cola’s former CEO Brian Dyson (1986-1994) is one of the most viral speeches circulating on the web. Very much in line with Apple founder Steve Jobs’ announcement speech at Stanford University, Dyson addresses the priorities in life using the metaphor of juggling 5 balls. He calls the balls work, family, friends, health and spirit.

                                                  Imagine life as a game in which you are juggling some five balls in the air. You name them work, family, health, friends and spirit. And you’re keeping all of these in the air.
                                                  You will soon understand that work is a rubber ball. If you drop it, it will bounce back. But the other four balls – family, health, friends and spirit – are made of glass. If you drop one of these, they will be irrevocably scuffed, marked, nicked, damaged or even shattered. They will never be the same. You must understand that and strive for balance in your life.You live in a world of growing opportunity at one of the most exciting times in history, and you have been prepared with an exceptionally fine education. Because you are all so well educated, let me pose this final question to you. What is education for? Is it for the pursuit of knowledge or for the pursuit of significance? How you answer makes a difference.Knowledge is merely a tool. There is someone in Argentina or Singapore who has the same degree as you. The difference lies in how you use it. Will you use your education for life or just as a living? It’s up to you now.

                                                  Tuesday, December 6, 2016

                                                  Possible reason for Samsung Note & battery Explosition

                                                  English: Cross View of a Battery with a Polyme...
                                                  English: Cross View of a Battery with a Polymer Separator (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

                                                  The Note 7's lithium-polymer battery is a flattened "jelly-roll" consisting of a positive layer made of lithium cobalt oxide, a negative layer made of graphite, and two electrolyte-soaked separator layers made of polymer. The separator layers allow ions (and energy) to flow between the positive and negative layers, without allowing those layers to touch. If the positive and negative layers ever do touch, the energy flowing goes directly into the electrolyte, heating it, which causes more energy to flow and more heat - it typically results in an explosion. Compressing the battery puts pressure on those critical polymer separator layers that keep the battery safe.

                                                  Samsung stated that these separator layers may have been thin to start with due to aggressive manufacturing parameters. Add some pressure due to normal mechanical swell from the battery or accumulated stress through the back cover (e.g. from being sat on in a back pocket), and that pressure could be enough to squeeze the thin polymer separator to a point where the positive and negative layers can touch, causing the battery to explode.

                                                  Thursday, December 1, 2016

                                                  Not all opportunities are to be taken

                                                  Lessons from this picture:
                                                  1. Not all opportunities are to be taken. Some are traps.
                                                  2.  A person can become so determined to destroy another person that they become blind and end up destroying themselves.
                                                  3. You fight best in your natural element and environment. Here the bird has advantage in his natural element.
                                                  4.  Know your limits, we all have them.
                                                  5. Sometimes the best response to provocation is not to fight.
                                                  6. Sometimes to accomplish something you need team work, you will not always win alone.
                                                  7. Stick to what you do best and don’t pursue what will kill you.

                                                  Friday, October 24, 2014


                                                  English: Transmission Electron Micrograph of t...
                                                  English: Transmission Electron Micrograph of the Ebola Virus. Hemorrhagic Fever, RNA Virus. Français : Virus Ebola. Italiano: Fotografia al microscopio elettronico della trasmissione del virus Ebola. Русский: Изображение вируса Эбола полученное с помощью просвечивающей электронной микроскопии. 中文: 電子顯微鏡下的伊波拉病毒結構. Türkçe: Ebola virüsü. Føroyskt: Ebola virus, eitt (-)ssRNA virus, undir elektronmikroskopi. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

                                                  Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus, with a fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches. Then, vomiting, diarrhoea and rash usually follows, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. At this time, generally, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. Death, if it occurs, is typically six to sixteen days after symptoms appear and is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss.
                                                  The virus is acquired by contact with blood or other body fluids of an infected human or other animal. This may also occur by direct contact with a recently contaminated item. Spread through the air has not been documented in the natural environment. Fruit bats are believed to be the normal carrier in nature, able to spread the virus without being affected. Humans become infected by contact with the bats or a living or dead animal that has been infected by bats. Once human infection occurs, the disease may spread between people as well. Male survivors may be able to transmit the disease via semen for nearly two months. To diagnose EVD, other diseases with similar symptoms such as malaria, cholera and other viral haemorrhagic fevers are first excluded. Blood samples are tested for viral antibodies, viral RNA, or the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis.
                                                  The Ebola virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated. Ebola virus disease (EVD) first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the other in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.
                                                  The current outbreak in west Africa, (first cases notified in March 2014), is the largest and most complex Ebola outbreak since the Ebola virus was first discovered in 1976. There have been more cases and deaths in this outbreak than all others combined. It has also spread between countries starting in Guinea then spreading across land borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia, by air (1 traveller only) to Nigeria, and by land (1 traveller) to Senegal.
                                                  The most severely affected countries, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia have very weak health systems, lacking human and infrastructural resources, having only recently emerged from long periods of conflict and instability. On August 8, the WHO Director-General declared this outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.
                                                  A separate, unrelated Ebola outbreak began in Boende, Equateur, an isolated part of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
                                                  The virus family Filoviridae includes 3 genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. There are 5 species that have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Reston and Taï Forest. The first 3, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, and Sudan ebolavirus have been associated with large outbreaks in Africa. The virus causing the 2014 west African outbreak belongs to the Zaire species.
                                                  Outbreak control requires a coordinated series of medical services, along with a certain level of community engagement. The necessary medical services include rapid detection and contact tracing, quick access to appropriate laboratory services, proper management of those who are infected, and proper disposal of the dead through cremation or burial. Prevention includes decreasing the spread of disease from infected animals to humans. This may be done by only handling potentially infected bush meat while wearing protective clothing and by thoroughly cooking it before consumption. It also includes wearing proper protective clothing and washing hands when around a person with the disease. Samples of body fluids and tissues from people with the disease should be handled with special caution.
                                                  No specific treatment for the disease is yet available. Efforts to help those who are infected are supportive and include giving either oral rehydration therapy (slightly sweetened and salty water to drink) or intravenous fluids. This supportive care improves outcomes. The disease has a high risk of death, killing between 25% and 90% of those infected with the virus, averaging out at 50%. EVD was first identified in an area of Sudan (now part of South Sudan), as well as in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). The disease typically occurs in outbreaks in tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa. From 1976 (when it was first identified) through 2013, the World Health Organization reported a total of 1,716 cases. The largest outbreak to date is the ongoing 2014 West African Ebola outbreak, which is currently affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. As of 22 October 2014, 9,964 suspected cases resulting in the deaths of 4,881 have been reported. Efforts are under way to develop a vaccine.
                                                  Symptoms of Ebola are treated as they appear. The following basic interventions, when used early, can significantly improve the chances of survival:
                                                  • Providing intravenous fluids (IV)and balancing electrolytes (body salts)
                                                  • Maintaining oxygen status and blood pressure
                                                  • Treating other infections if they occur
                                                  • Experimental vaccines and treatments for Ebola are under development, but they have not yet been fully tested for safety or effectiveness.
                                                  Recovery from Ebola depends on good supportive care and the patient's immune response. People who recover from Ebola infection develop antibodies that last for at least 10 years, possibly longer. It isn't known if people who recover are immune for life or if they can become infected with a different species of Ebola. Some people who have recovered from Ebola have developed long-term complications, such as joint and vision problems.

                                                  Monday, October 20, 2014

                                                  MEP Fix Classification

                                                  First fix comprises all the work needed to take a building from foundation to putting plaster on the internal walls. This includes constructing walls, floors and ceilings, and inserting cables for electrical supply and pipes for water supply.

                                                  Second fix comprises all the work after the plastering to a finished house. Electrical fixtures are connected to the cables, sinks and baths connected to the pipes, and doors fitted into doorframes. Second fix work requires a neater finish than first fix.

                                                  The division of work is a convenient description because electricians, plumbers and carpenters will probably have to make two separate visits to one property under construction, at separate times. Project managers can report "first fix complete" or "second fix 50% done" and others can understand.

                                                  The installation of this equipment takes place in the "third fix" segment of a construction project. It is especially important that installation of sensitive electronic equipment be installed only when a construction site is dust-controlled and prepared for what would be considered "dust free" conditions


                                                  Plumbing (Drainage/Water Supply & Fire Fighting)

                                                  1. First Fix: Surveying, Marking, Supports and Brackets Installation    
                                                  2. Second Fix:
                                                  • Stage 1: Installation of Main Plumbing Header & Branch pipe
                                                  • Stage 2: Insulation of Branch pipe & Installation of droppers with Valve accessories
                                                  • Stage 3: Testing of Main & Branch Pipe lines
                                                  1. Final Fix: Installation of Hose Bib & Sanitary fixtures (All Exposed Plumbing Items)
                                                  2. Equipment Installations: Sump Pump & Water Heater (All Plumbing Long Lead Items)



                                                  1. First Fix: Surveying, Marking, Supports and Brackets Installation
                                                  2. Second Fix:
                                                  • Stage 1: Installation of Ducts/CHW/Refrigerant Pipe
                                                  • Stage 2: Insulation of Branch Ducts/CHW/Refrigerant Pipe & Installation of droppers with Valve Accessories
                                                  • Stage 3: Testing of Main & Branch Ducts/CHW/Refrigerant Pipe
                                                  1. Final Fix: Installation of Grilles & Diffusers (All Exposed HVAC Items)
                                                  2. Equipment Installations: Chillers & AHU's (All HVAC Long Lead Items)


                                                  1. First Fix: Surveying, Marking, Supports and Brackets , install conduits & back boxes in wall
                                                  2. Second Fix:
                                                  1. Final Fix: Installation of Light Fixtures (All Exposed Electrical Items)
                                                  2. Equipment Installations: HV Switch gear & DB's/SMDB's/LCP's (All Electrical Long Lead Items)

                                                  High Level Installations refers MEP Works in Ceiling Void Space
                                                  Low Level Installation refers MEP works below the false ceiling board enclosure
                                                  Generally MEP Risers are given more importance .It has separate WBS named Risers in which respective risers are mentioned it is not classified in to fixes

                                                  L is for Lien

                                                  English: Contractor-led design-build, architec...
                                                  English: Contractor-led design-build, architect as subcontractor (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

                                                  Contractors, subcontractors, suppliers and consultants cite "not getting paid" as one of the biggest challenges to operating in the construction industry in Qatar.  Understandably, companies are starting to look for opportunities to secure payment.  Effective, practical methods are proving difficult.  Liens are not without their difficulties but are another method to throw into the mix.
                                                  A "lien" is a priority right over property, moveable or immovable. Liens can arise where money is due from one party to another in order to satisfy or secure that debt.  In its simplest form it is hanging on to goods/materials/equipment which are properly in your possession but belong to someone else; someone whom owes you money.  In the construction context this becomes more difficult when those goods or materials are delivered and incorporated into a building or structure.  At this stage the lien is exercised as a "priority right", or an "attachment", broadly similar to a mortgage over a property.
                                                  A supplier has a lien or priority right over the materials supplied for as long as they maintain their "intrinsic nature".  Again, in the construction context, once incorporated into a building or structure they are likely to be inseparable, no longer of the same intrinsic nature.  A further problem arises if the goods or materials are sold on and the purchasing party knows nothing of the debt owed to the supplier – in these circumstances the lien may be lost. 
                                                  There is a risk that the goods or materials may be subject to other priority rights.  Judicial costs, costs of sale, costs of preserving or storing the materials, and wages to workers all taking precedence over the supplier's right to recover the debt it is owed.
                                                  Qatari law makes specific provision to cover the fees of contractors and designers whose work is in immovable property. i.e. The construction, rebuilding, restoring or maintaining of buildings or installations.  Such contractors and designers have a priority right over the building or installation to the extent of the value in the building or installation arising from the work of the contractor or designer. 
                                                  These priority rights must be registered as a charge over the property. They will rank behind other prior registered charges save where the prior registered charges were in existence before the works carried out by the contractor or designer added value to the property.  Registered charges whilst securing a debt may do little to assist in the short term as the contractor or designer, the lien holder, may not be able to force the sale of the property to recover its money.
                                                  Some contractors are deprived of the opportunity to secure payment by way of lien or priority right by being obliged to provide waivers or releases.  A release indicates completion and payment, or that a claim has been satisfied.  Releases may be required as a pre-condition to payment or to the issue of a taking over or initial acceptance certificate.  A waiver is typically obtained before commencement of the works and may be drafted into the terms of the contact itself.  A waiver relinquishes any existing or future right to a lien/priority right.
                                                  It is sensible for the construction client to protect itself by requiring that a contractor provide waivers or releases from its subcontractors.  This avoids a subcontractor registering a priority right over a property due to non-payment by the contractor where the contractor has been correctly paid by the client. 
                                                  Suzannah is a guest columnist for Construction Week Online.  As published in May 2012.